62. Why Beta Cells need to be saved?? Very early !!!

Limited β cell Reserves

  • Beta Cell proliferation begins shortly after birth
  • Rate of Beta cell proliferation is highest (1-3%) in the 1st year of life
  • Rate of Beta cell proliferation declines to less than 0.2%, after 2 years of age
  • Normal Adult rate of Beta cell proliferation is 0.1%

β Cell function (relative to IS) declines when FPG increases

  • Declines 23% even in Normoglycemic adolescents  (FPG between 90-100 mg/dl)
  • Significantly declines by 49% in Pre-diabetics  (FPG between 100-126 mg/dl)
  • β cell death begins 10-12 years before diagnosis of diabetes
  • Diabetics have already lost 50% of their β cells (at the time of diagnosis)

β Cell Vulnerable to Apoptosis ( due to OS and ER stress)

  • Beta cells lack Catalase and Glutathione, hence are vulnerable to OS
  • Beta cells are vulnerable to Oxidative Stress induced by Insulitis (T1D) & Glycotoxicity (T2D)
  • In diabetes there is a 3 to 10 fold increase in Beta cell apoptosis

β Cell Regeneration in humans is possible
Remission of diabetes is possible

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